GPS Systems for

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meaning Global Navigation Satellite System, is a system for positioning and navigation on earth and in the air by receiving signals from navigation satellites and pseudelites.

GNSS is a collective term for existing and future satellite systems:

  • GPS (Global Positioning System) – USA
    fully functioning since 1995
  • GLONASS (GLObal Navigation Satellite System) – Russia
    not fully functioning as of today
  • Galileo – Europe
    completion expected around 2020
  • IRNSS (Indian Regional Navigation System) – India
    functioning since 2016
  • Beidou (Chinese for the Big Dipper asterism)
    completion expected around 2020
  • QZSS (Quasi-Zenith Satellite System) – Japan
    completion expected around 2020
  • SBAS (Satellite Based Augmentation Systems)
    Are satellite based supplement systems, that support existing other satellite navigation systems.

More information: here.

Die verschiedenen Satelittensysteme verwenden unterschiedliche Frequenzen:

Frequencies of the GNSS

The different satellite systems use different frequencies:

Navstar GPS

The Navigational Satellite Timing and Ranging – Global Positioning System is the US-American satellite System. It was built up in the 70’s by the U.S. Department of Defense for military purposes and has been fully functioning since the mid 90’s. Read more about the frequency bands L1 (civil), L2 (military), L2C, L5 (under construction) and L6 here.
Link zu News Eintrag GPS frequencies


is a satellite navigation system run by the Ministry of Defence of the Russian Federation. The buildup and the mode of functioning resemble the US-American NAVSTAR GPS. The two comparable systems were developed independently from one another at about the same time during the Cold War for military reasons. the Glonass development started in 1972 and was completed in 1996.


is the european satellite navigation system, mainly for civil purposes. It is supposed to revolutionise the by now outdated GPS system and to prevent the EU’s dependency.


The Indian Regional Navigation Satellite System is a scheduled Indian system for satellite navigation, similar to the existing GPS, Glonass and the foreseen Galileo systems.


is the navigation system of the People’s Republic of China. It has been in operation since 2004, however, the use is limited to the Asian area. As China is also involved in the European system Galileo, it is not yet clear, whether it will be fully completed.


The Quasi-Zenith Satellite System is the Japanese satellite system, still under construction, which is supposed to complement the global navigation satellite systems. The stellite constellation consisting of 3 geosynchronous satellites was especially designed for Japan, but also other areas of the Asian-Pacific region will benefit from it.

OmniSTAR (satellite-based augmentation system)

is the worldmarket leader when it comes to transmitting DGNSS correction signals via satellite and is part of the Fugro Group, a globally operating service and consulting company. The OmniSTAR services were specifically designed to cover the need for exact positioning systems and the corresponding services for land-based applications.